Evaluation Tool: iTECH - H&W
Within the INNOVACONCRETE project work, an analysis model has been designed by the University of Cadiz, which allows for systematic measuring of the touristic potential of cultural assets, including those that are in disuse or at risk of abandonment. This model adapts the typology used for ecosystem services of natural heritage, to the singularities and characteristics of constructed heritage elements that, according to their structures and the processes that take place in them, develop functions that provide human benefits.
iTECH - H&W
InnovaConcrete Tool for the Enhancement of concrete-based cultural heritage - Heritage and Welfare
iTECH - H&W tool is focused on two approaches based on the benefits that heritage generates for society (from heritage to society) from a tourism ecosystem perspective. The model begins with an analysis of the current state of use and touristic potential of an asset through the evaluation of the services it offers based on available facilities (TPIH-ES). The second phase assesses the touristic value of the landmark through its intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics (I-VATUR).
Plan design: Ecosystem services approach methodology. Typological classification. methodology and indicators.
Technical report on the conceptual approach developed for the design of the management tool iTECH H&W.
Practical and technical process
iTECH – H&W. Methodological proposal for the integrated heritage management and its touristic use: A perspective from sustainability and human welfare.
Technical report for the application of the tool.
Step 1 - Register
The application of the tool begins with a descriptive phase of the asset and its components. In this first phase, uses and services are systematically identified and classified. The process of describing the components of the cultural asset consists of identification and classification of the amenity, its uses, functions and services.
Substep 1.1: General information
Complete the following form according to the information requested in the descriptions.
a.1 Asset (Indicate the asset to be evaluated. E.g.: church, monastery, civil work, museum, palace, cathedral, etc.).
a.2 Original use (Use for which it was built).
a.3 Original denomination (Code or denomination if any).
a.4 Author/s (If known).
a.5 Date of construction.
a.6 Artistic movement.
a.7 Type of resource (Select the asset type from the drop-down list).
a.8 Type of system (Indicate if there is an interrelationship between different services within the own asset. Whether it is a simple system (e.g., a sculpture) or part of a complex system (e.g., a building with stores and restaurants, museums with exhibition halls, etc.).
a.9 Latitude (Coordinates, example: 36.524517).
a.10 Longitude (Coordinates, example: -6.286241).
Substep 1.2: Supply Units (SU)
Identification and categorization of available facilities and infrastructure. Indicate each of the elements that are part of the asset. For example, stores, restaurants, museums, information desk, parking, offices, etc.
Identify the type of cultural property system of the SU: Indicate if it is a natural, mixed or completely human-made element (anthropic).
Identify the level of transformation of the SU: Indicate if the unit is partially, nothing at all or highly transformed.
Classification of uses and functions of the SU: The functions associated with these units or systems is then determined, which will be responsible for services. To facilitate this classification, different levels of detail are used in the assignment of services associated with the function(s) developed within each unit. It follows that it is necessary to propose services for each of the following functions:
- · Main function for which it was created (The asset is associated with the services it provided in the past. In some cases, these could be reset).
- · Function or functions that are currently being developed (These are those current services associated with the structure, and are the most important when it comes to identifying and categorizing services).
- · Complementary function or functions developed by the asset (The property will have other associated services, complementary to primary ones, which can be observed).
- · Function or functions that enhance the potential of the asset. The associated services of these functions are used to find new potential benefits that are generated by the building. To search for "good practices" for the type of building, these findings could lead to improvements or an extension of the anthropic services provided; or to the renovation of the uses of buildings that, at present, are not in use and are in a situation of abandonment or degradation.
Step 2 - TPIH-ES
Tourist Potentiality Index for Heritage from a Ecosystem Services perspective (TPIH-ES).
The first index is carried out through a series of elements and criteria that identify the level of Touristic Utilization (TU) of the services offered by a cultural or heritage asset.
Identify the type of services
An interesting aspect of this exercise to bear in mind is that tourism is not a specific economic activity, but a social practice, which is supported by a set of economic activities. Thus, for tourism to be developed, it requires the supply of a wide variety of services in addition to cultural ones: support services (e.g. accommodation, infrastructure for mobility and transport), supply services (e.g., gastronomic practices, professional services - such as travel agencies), regulation (e.g., for safety, to obtain permits) and, of course, cultural (e.g., for leisure and recreation).
Definition of types of services that group anthropic services:
- · Spatial support services: The space and, or adapted physical support necessary to allow or sustain certain needs and functions (living, resting, storing, facilitating activities and operations, etc.).
- · Provisioning services: The provision of people, goods and products necessary to meet needs or facilitate other services (provision of workers, basic urban services, transformed goods, economic income, information and knowledge, etc.).
- · Regulating services: Adjust, regulate, mediate, give order to social processes, human functions and activities and in their basic functions (regulate the movements of people, social and economic interactions, security, physical and mental health).
- · Cultural services: The characteristics and elements of human constructions that provide opportunities for people to obtain cultural benefits (visual, experiential, emotional, cognitive).
Classify the types of services offered
Identify and classify the uses and functions of the system by the type of service it provides. Services, in turn, are classified into subcategories.
NOTE: To validate these relationships, the selection made by DOCOMOMO of representative buildings as heritage, based on 20th-century concrete, has been taken into account within the framework of the Innova Concrete project.
Classification of services. Examples of European buildings of cultural interest that meet each of them are provided.
1 - Spatial support services
1.1 - Space necessary to rest and, or stay (hotels, residences, houses)
Unité d'Habitation de Marseille (Marseille, France)
1.2 - Operational space for the development of human activities (office buildings, multipurpose rooms, sports halls, racetracks)
Centennial Hall (Wroclaw, Poland)
1.3 - Space to store, deposit and, or receive (storage facility, hangars, garages)
Two hangars in Grimbergen (Brussels, Belgium)
1.4 - Support needed to enable movement and transportation (bridges, highways, roads, waterways, train tracks, and other transportation infrastructure)
Kasari Bridge (Lääne, Estonia)
2 - Provisioning services
2.1 - Providers of human mobility to allow other anthropic activities (bus station, train station, airports)
Leipzig Main Station (Leipzig, Germany)
2.2 - Providers of goods and products to allow other anthropic activities (distribution and commercial centers: markets; shops; department stores; street markets; infrastructure to facilitate their transport)
Schreiner Building (Regensburg, Germany)
2.3 - Providers of basic urban services (power plants, pipe systems, gas pipelines, cabling)
Københavns Højdevandbeholder (Copenhaguen, Denmark)
2.4 - Providers of goods and products through transformation, processing and handling of materials (industries, factories, processing or processing centers)
AE.G._Turbinen Fabrik (Berlin, Germany)
2.5 - Providers of monetary benefits through commercial or exchange activities (money, material or services) (shops, shopping centers, markets, concert halls)
Schreiner Building (Regensburg, Germany)
2.6 - Providers of professional services, information and knowledge (consulting, repair shops; radio stations; research centers, technology centers)
Radio Kootwijk (Apeldoorn, Netherlands)
3 - Regulating services
3.1 - Regulation of waste by an urban or industrial process (treatment plants, disposal, waste storage)
Gävle Crematorium (Gävle, Sweden)
3.2 - Regulation of the flow of people, vehicles, goods and materials (customs, tolls, control towers, observation towers)
Simon Stevin Lorentz Sluices (Den Oever, Netherlands)
3.3 - Regulation of the conditions of habitability, security, social development, economic interactions and organization (prisons, fire brigade buildings, police or military, offices, town halls, courts and tribunals, embassies)
Court House of Livadia (Livadia, Greece)
3.4 - Regulation of basic physical and mental health (health centers, hospitals, veterinary centers)
Herlev Amtssygehus (Herlev, Denmark)
4 - Cultural services
4.1 - Physical and experiential interactions, active or passive, for leisure and tourism and, or enjoyment and personal development (sports facilities, bars, restaurants, nightclubs, museums, cinemas, concert halls, theaters)
Olympic stadium (Helsinki, Finland)
4.2 - Intellectual interactions for development and cognitive training (schools, universities, technological development centers, research, innovation and development centers, libraries, museums)
Eduardo Torroja Institute of Construction Sciences (Madrid, Spain)
4.3 - Spiritual, religious, symbolic, aesthetic, emblematic or ethical interactions (churches, convents, monasteries, cathedrals, cemeteries, monuments, memorials)
St. Peter the Martyr Dominican Fathers Convent (Madrid, Spain)
4.4 - Sociocultural relations and material or economic exchange (public squares, urban beaches, markets)
Park–Monument Bulg Friendship (Varna, Bulgaria)
4.5 - Non-use value (mere existence value, legacy value) (disused heritage buildings, conservation libraries)
Monument Bulg Communist Party (Buzludzha Peak, Bulgaria)
Source: University of Cadiz, 2019. Source of examples: DOCOMOMO.
Selection of tourism components
Once the types of services and their categories have been classified, the TPIH-ES index groups this need for services, in the form of criteria and assuming their correlation, which is necessary for the practice of tourism. The selected criteria are the following:
The character of the services according to the relevance of the function, considering the main use of the asset.
- · C1. Main Service: It represents the main service of the asset, for which it was built or restored.
In addition to the main service, complementary services provided by the asset are incorporated. These may include:
- · C2. The cultural component: services that allow the appreciation, interpretation and enjoyment of the heritage (tangible or intangible / natural or anthropic).
- · C3. The recreational and leisure component: a set of activities and experiences that include shopping, enjoying entertainment and leisure activities, practicing sports, strolling and making use of cultural facilities.
- · C4. The amusement component: sports competitions, gambling services or services related to these activities.
- · C5. Of intermediation or consultancy in touristic activities: including organization and marketing activities.
- · C6. Of transport or mobility: mobility services or transfer of persons.
- · C7. Of catering or gastronomy: food and/or beverage services consumed on site
- · C8. Of accommodation: lodging services or temporary residence for overnight stay.
- · C9. Of Professional Organization of Congresses or events (OPC): professional event organization, development and management services.
1.- Select from the drop-down menu the main service category offered by the SU: Spatial support, Provisioning, Regulating or Cultural service.
2.- Select from the drop-down menu the specific type of service for each SU.
3.- Select those components (C1, C2..., C9) to which the services provided by the supplying units are related (US).
Step 3 - I-VATUR
Heritage tourism valuation index (I-VATUR).
Once the level of tourist use of the asset is identified from the perspective of services, it is necessary to know its value as a tourist asset according to the experience offered to the visitor and the anthropic services offered, mainly those related to leisure and recreation, but also those related to tradition, linked to the asset as a symbol of one or several cultures, or the services that allow intellectual relations.
Understanding the touristic value of a property, allows for corrective measures to be developed that transmit an image of the cultural property to society as a source of new and enriching experiences and, consequently, are enjoyed by the community (tourists or residents).
To that end, a heritage tourism valuation index (I-VATUR) has been developed, which is carried out through the selection and ranking of a series of criteria that can be part of a cultural asset.
To establish the selection of the 21 resulting criteria, two broad groups were defined that emphasize the touristic value of a heritage asset from two different perspectives: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Select the scenario that best represents the current situation or value of the asset.
Those attributes inherent to a building are included, such as its formal, architectural, cultural and historical characteristics.
1. Singularity: This evaluates the degree of exceptionality or exemplarity of the property as a unique testimony of a cultural tradition or a living or lost civilization. Two fundamental approaches should be considered, the one referring to exceptionality compared to the more or less immediate environment (local level) and the one referring to exceptionality on an international level. The degree of visitor attraction (regional, national or international) will depend on the determination of its exceptionality.
2. Representativeness: The degree to which a property is representative of a clearly defined geo-cultural region and capable of illustrating the essential and distinctive cultural elements of those regions. Whether the property is an eminently representative example of a type of construction, of an architectural or technological complex, or of a landscape that illustrates one or more significant periods of human history (criterion iv of section II.D) is evaluated. Assessment is made of how an asset is representative as a symbol or peculiarity of a destination at different geographical levels (regional, national and international), e.g., an iconic neighborhood of a city; a basilica commemorating victims of a war, representative of a turbulent historical period at a national level; or a representative sculpture of the modern age on an international level.
3. Aesthetics: Refers to the beauty of both the asset and its surroundings, this element will be influenced by subjective taste and the experience of the individual who observes it. Aesthetics, together with function and form, will influence the appreciation of the asset. Within aesthetic considerations, aspects such as line, shape, size, texture, colour, balance and symmetry, unity, movement, emphasis or contrast, space, alignment and the cultural context where it is located will be taken into account. Determined by the aesthetic qualities of the property, its ability to attract flows of tourists and visitors at different levels (regional, national and international) is considered. For its assessment, intrinsic aspects of architecture are included, such as the formal strategies of the designer and the qualities of the building. Note: The aesthetic evaluation will be carried out through the recognition of the mentioned values through specialists, based on the presence of the asset in the bibliography.
4. Significance: Evaluates the importance of an asset as an example of one or more significant historical periods in human history. It goes beyond artistic or aesthetic reasons. Its value as a witness to one or more cultures and whether it is directly associated with events or living traditions, ideas, beliefs or artistic and literary works that have exceptional universal value is taken into account (criterion n. Vi in section II.D). The asset retains all the elements that contribute to its significance.
5. Integration with the environment: The level of integration with the environment is evaluated as an intrinsic element of the property as it is part of the same system, capable of being valued as an immovable part of the property. Whether it is found in natural or urban environments is considered. In addition to the architectural or natural quality of the environment, the abstract value of its role in history is taken into account: the organization of space, materials, forms and, if possible, the functions of the whole, as well as its role as essential testimony of the culture or cultures that have shaped the landscape. Historic "fossil" environments (e.g. archaeological sites or abandoned settings), natural without buildings or with buildings perfectly integrated into the natural landscape (e.g. Angkor Wat Temples), or "living environments" are considered. Those that are still inhabited and whose socio-economic and cultural interactions continue the evolution or development of the landscape. If the activities carried out in the property are part of traditional societies, it is considered that they should be evaluated positively as long as their activities are not incompatible, or are not detrimental to the "exceptional universal value" of the environment and are sustainable from a social, cultural and environmental perspective (n.90 of section II.E on Authenticity and, or Integrity).
6. Authenticity: Considering the practical approach of the tool and its application to the tourism field, authenticity will be determined by the degree of credibility of the sources of information on the original, and later characteristics of the property and its meaning. Based on the Nara Document on Authenticity, depending on the type of cultural property and its context, it can be estimated that a property meets the conditions of authenticity if its cultural value is expressed in a reliable and credible way through various attributes such as shape and design; materials and substance; use and function; traditions, techniques and management systems; location and environment; language and other forms of intangible heritage; spirit and sensitivity; and other internal and extrinsic factors. Therefore, aspects such as the originality of the materials with which it was built, its history and aging as well as changes derived from the passage of time will be taken into account. The purpose of this criterion is not to guarantee an evaluation of the authenticity of the property, for which a more in-depth analysis would be necessary, but to establish its current state, taking into account the elements described.
These are defined as the extrinsic elements existing in the heritage asset and in its environment. These elements are cataloged to facilitate a global, ordered and schematic view of the existing resources in the area that could potentially constitute a list of attractions in a location. Based on the results obtained after applying the recreational criteria, it is then possible to determine the suitability of the resources available to the building, as well as to evaluate possible activities and complementary functions not as yet considered.
Within the recreational evaluation, and taking into account its application to cultural heritage, it is considered appropriate to subdivide the elements that are part of the object into two sections:
Elements intended to facilitate the convenient (touristic) operation of the building. These are:
7. Support facilities: From the perspective of touristic use and revaluation of cultural assets, the need for certain support facilities is considered, without prejudice to its integrity. The factors to be evaluated are, thus, the existence and condition of facilities that offer services to visitors and tourists. The facility criteria include information or advice facilities, such as tourist signs or information offices; walking trails; web pages, etc. Additionally, complementary support facilities are considered, such as urban amenities; recreation, leisure and relaxation infrastructure (e.g. accommodation, shops, bars and restaurants or interpretation centers); parking for vehicles; bathrooms; research service, etc. The space between the available facilities and the asset is included.
8. Accessibility: This includes facilities used to arrive at and gain access to the property. Assessment should be made of difficulties (geomorphological) to get there, such as steep slopes, impassable trails due to the existence of dense vegetation or the presence of mud or flooded land (e.g., wetlands). The dependence on roads, paths or trails should also be considered, due to its distance from the nearest main city and the availability of public or private transport arranged for visits. Additionally, the available infrastructures that allow access and guarantee the safety of people with reduced mobility or sensory disabilities should also be considered. This can be done from two perspectives: elimination of architectural barriers (ramps, elevators, adapted toilets, handrails, elevators) and visual infrastructures (visual information, light warnings, sign language interpreter) and aural (tactile information, contrasts, acoustic alarm systems or adequate lighting, typography and signage, adapted resource website, etc.).
9. Functionality: This refers to the capacity of a property to offer services of a cultural and leisure nature for visitors and tourists, taking into account its main function or functions, as well as complementary ones. The possibility of offering services that allow the revaluation of a property is considered, such as recreation services, accommodation, transport or mobility, restoration or a gastronomic component, professional organization of congresses or events, intermediation, etc.
10. Availability in time and space: The availability of the property is evaluated for its touristic-recreational use. Both the availability in terms of timing (possibility of visiting the property during different periods of the year), as well as availability in terms of space, referring to the areas that the property has equipped for the proper functioning of activities will be considered. For example, whether the use of special permits for the visit is required. The availability of the property will depend on its characteristics and needs, taking into account its main and complementary functions within its cultural and natural context.
11. Viability: The viability of the use or exploitation of a property is evaluated, taking into account its characteristics and the limits of the environment (natural or not) in which it is situated. Its economic viability will be considered, such as the evaluation of costs and benefits, land acquisition costs, restoration and, or maintenance costs of the property and, or the environment, management and maintenance costs, etc.; its social viability, such as the social benefits for certain actions on the asset and the approval of the community (its participation is necessary); and legal-administrative viability, which is related to the existence of acquired rights (of passage, of use, etc.), traditional uses of the land (agricultural, livestock, extractive, etc.) and legal, regulatory, contractual situation, planning, institutional and, or traditional property for e.g., a national or provincial park; a historical monument, an area protected by national or customary laws, etc. In order to balance the current use of a property with potential future uses, the basic needs of the property and the requirements of the community must be taken into account, provided that such balance does not undermine its fundamental cultural values.
12. Suitability: The ability of a property to offer cultural services to visitors is considered taking into account the limits of its infrastructure and environment, its state of conservation, or if it is threatened by specific problems and risks. The factors to be considered are those related to the impact that certain activities could have on the property, such as development pressure, visitor/tourism pressure, environmental pressure or risk prevention. Therefore, to establish the suitability of the property, updated information must be gathered on the factors that may affect or threaten the property and its environment. Whether the impact of these factors on the property is increasing or decreasing and an indication of the measures that have been taken in this regard or are planned for the future should also be included.
13. Conservation and integrity: Conservation and integrity measures the state of conservation and the unitary and intact character of the property (whether natural or cultural) and its attributes. To assess the degree of conservation and integrity of a cultural property, whether it presents physical elements in danger of collapse, irreversibly degraded by the adverse effects of development and, or negligence or the impossibility of appreciating the elements that make up its "exceptional value", are taken into account. The physical material of the asset and, or its significant characteristics must be in good condition to favor its revaluation.
14. Tourist context: Evaluates the level of tourist flow in the location of a property. This parameter defines the possibilities and potential of a property to attract visitors based on the touristic density of the territory, or the flow of visitors that pass through its surroundings (little or none, moderate or abundant). It also includes whether or not the property is located within the traditional tourist circuits of the destination.
Criteria oriented to aesthetic appreciation, a building as a symbol, tradition or cultural identity, the feeling of attachment and the spiritual experience related to the environment and the landscape. These are:
15. Dimensions: Considering the level of attraction that certain cultural assets inspire due to their monumentality (size), an asset will be evaluated according to its size in relation to the environment in which it is located. Thus, monumentality or size of assets is considered as an influential factor in appreciation and tourist experience. A large cultural property will improve the conditions of visibility, appreciation and enjoyment compared to objects of reduced dimensions, such as, for example, a high tonnage concrete structure in front of a well ledge, which may be of great interest or beauty, but fails to capture the attention of a less specialized public. In any case, the appropriate size will be evaluated which allows the complete representation of the characteristics and processes that convey the importance of the property (n.88 of section II.E. on Integrity).
16. Landscape quality: The concept of landscape quality is directly related to the immediate environment of the property or, the so-called "buffer zone" (if any), understood as an area around the property whose use and development are legally and, or customarily restricted in order to reinforce its protection or that of possible neighboring assets. For this reason, the immediate environment of the property, the perspectives and other areas or attributes that are functionally important to support the property and its conservation will be taken into account (n.104 of section II.F. on Buffer Zone). Thus, for evaluation, the importance of the elements that form the landscape is considered for the appreciation of the property. It includes, on the one hand, the level of degradation of the environment and, on the other, those complementary factors that may negatively affect the visitor experience, such as a lack of cleanliness, noise or light pollution or elements unconnected with the place and the asset.
17. Uniqueness of services: From the perspective of tourist services, the existence of unique services will be evaluated, on the one hand, as being those that provide the visitor with exceptional cultural, leisure or recreational experiences (e.g., a celebration of popular festivals, cultural events such as concerts or theatres, workshops for the elaboration of traditional objects related to the culture of the place, themed guided tours, etc.). Complementary, or support services, that facilitate the appropriate development of tourist activity within a property will be evaluated, (e.g. information offices, transport or mobility, organization of events, etc.).
18. Identity: The essential contribution of the identity criterion lies in the consideration of the asset as a collective memory of one or more cultures and its capacity to reflect it. This includes aspects such as: tradition, commemoration, legend, symbolism, spirituality or religious character, territorial identification. The importance of the property as a cultural identity will be taken into account according to the territorial level to which it identifies: local, regional or national (e.g., a commemorative monument of a given historical period in a specific region - regional level - or a wall or fortification that identifies several territories of one or several countries - national/international level).
19. Emotionality: Aspects related to emotion or sensitivity do not lend themselves easily to analysis nor to practical application of tourist conditions of a cultural asset. However, they are important indicators of character and spiritual potential. The capacity of a property and its environment to generate positive emotions to the visitor is evaluated, as well as the emotions generated by the activities carried out there, such as emotions of amazement (feeling that an element is much greater than the subject themselves as a spectator, moments of magnificence and beauty) and emotions related to the interest awakened by the asset (fascination and curiosity). To try to objectify the criterion of emotionality, heritage knowledge is incorporated as a fundamental element to generate emotions. This is based on the premise that in order to increase emotions that could be experienced, it is necessary to have information related to them, facilitating their interpretation and, in turn, the generation of emotions of amazement and interest. Any asset in which an emotional and intellectual connection based on a universal concept can be generated will be more apprehensible and therefore more attractive. Additionally, the presence of the asset in the media (movies, series, books, songs, etc.) is taken into account, where the ability to generate emotions of wonder and curiosity can indirectly help to improve the tourist destination through media tourism or the phenomenon set-jetting. Note: these connections are not always evident and, many times, the task of revealing meanings or interpretation of the resource falls to the guide-interpreter as it may not be easy for a visitor to discover it spontaneously or intuitively. For this reason, it is important to define how resources can be capable of generating emotions.
20. Interpretive elements and educational value: The use and exploitation of the current capacities of a property is evaluated for the education and awareness of visitors regarding the need to preserve a property. For this, three fundamental factors are considered: the existence of specific information (e.g., posters, brochures, images, detailed and informative information accessible to a non-specialized public, digital support with images, videos, interviews, documentaries, etc.); areas with facilities and available for the organization of activities (e.g., rooms or workshops, trails, interpretation centers, etc.) and the effective implementation of educational activities (history - nature classrooms, workshops for groups of visitors - schoolchildren, adults, specialized public and general public – available in several languages, etc.). The ability of an asset to develop activities related to its cultural importance through the participation of schools, universities, museums and other local and national educational authorities (n.220 of section VI.C on Education), will be directly related to its ability to promote awareness of the protection and safeguarding of the asset in society.
21. Visibility and promotion: The general visibility of a property is evaluated among potential tourists through the use of dissemination channels (brochures, guides, websites, etc.), or by being part of touristic groups or itineraries that have such visibility. These channels are outstanding elements for promoting the tourist resources of a territory. Their appearance reflects the actions carried out for its awareness, promotion and dissemination.
NOTE: This hierarchy is not intended to represent the architectural reality of the cases be studied nor to decipher their monumentality neither their more technical aspects. The objective of the model is to provide a simplified reflection of the tourism reality of heritage and relative information on the current TU status of a given asset, based on the services it offers and its direct relationship with the different tourism-heritage criteria reflected in this study. It is therefore important to bear in mind that, if information on the exact valuation from an architectural-artistic point of view is desired, the information provided here will not be sufficient, and it will be necessary to engage specialists to obtain a technical perspective of the case under consideration.
In relation to the methods used in the evaluation of ecosystem services, a service depends on the natural functions of the ecosystem, which, if carried out in a balanced manner, facilitate the greatest possible supply, resulting in a preliminary diagnosis on which are those functions and/or elements that facilitate different types of services.
In this sense, elements that are difficult to adapt (intrinsic elements) and those that, on occasion are adaptable or partially adaptable (external elements) are valued in order to favour their valuation and tourist use.
For the selection of the evaluation criteria, the four large groups defined previously by various authors have been taken into account, which could be summarized as: associative, aesthetic, economic and informative-educational and scientific values.
To define the criteria, the Operational Guidelines for the inscription of specific types of properties on the World Heritage List of the World Heritage Convention (1972) were taken into account.
The guidelines selected by the Evaluation Committee can be found in the official document of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (last revised 2019).
Step 4 - Results
Through the combination of both indices (TPIH-ES / I-VATUR) information is obtained regarding the development or enhancement capabilities and current TU (Touristic Utilization) of a heritage asset according to its component characteristics. Thus, by way of diagnosis, an integrated vision is generated where the importance of services and uses (original, complementary and potential) and the tourist valuation of heritage are combined.
Both results are complemented with a matrix, which accelerates the interpretation and evaluation of the obtained results. Simultaneously, it allows for monitoring of the impact of strategic decisions, evaluating and updating the value of parameters and criteria of valuation, including the current tourist potential of a cultural asset and its facilities.
iTECH - H&W Form
The design and application of the tool is not intended to provide an accurate assessment of the situation of the property in terms of its architectural, artistic or historical value, but rather the main purpose of the model is to serve as a catalyst for decision making and for the development of networks between the agents involved in heritage and tourism. This evaluation must be accompanied by a technical analysis of the asset, which will allow the study to be complemented and improved.